Research Perspective: Autophagy:
Lysosome-targeting agents in cancer therapy
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Guido Kroemer1,2,3,4,5,6,7 and Lorenzo Galluzzi1,8,9
1 Université Paris Descartes/Paris V, Paris, France
2 Université Pierre et Marie Curie/Paris VI, Paris, France
3 Equipe 11 labellisée Ligue contre le Cancer, Centre de Recherche des Cordeliers, Paris, France
4 INSERM, U1138, Paris, France
5 Metabolomics and Cell Biology Platforms, Gustave Roussy Comprehensive Cancer Institute, Villejuif, France
6 Department of Women’s and Children’s Health, Karolinska Institute, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden
7 Pôle de Biologie, Hopitâl Européen George Pompidou, AP-HP, Paris, France
8 Department of Radiation Oncology, Weill Cornell Medical College, New York, NY, USA
9 Sandra and Edward Meyer Cancer Center, New York, NY, USA
Guido Kroemer, email:
Lorenzo Galluzzi, email:
Keywords: anticancer immunosurveillance, autophagy, chemotherapy, chloroquine, hydroxychloroquine
Received: August 31, 2017 Accepted: September 16, 2017 Published: October 03, 2017
Despite considerable efforts from multiple laboratories worldwide, highly specific inhibitors of autophagy for clinical use are not yet available. Lysosomal inhibitors are being employed instead, in spite of multiple limitations that are summarized herein.
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