Body mass index and incidence of nonaggressive and aggressive prostate cancer: a dose-response meta-analysis of cohort studies
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Bo Xie1,*, Guanjun Zhang2,*, Xiao Wang3 and Xin Xu3
1Department of Urology, Tongde Hospital of Zhejiang Province, Hangzhou, Zhejiang 310012, China
2Department of Urology, Hospital of Traditional Chinese Medicine of Shangyu, Shangyu 312300, Zhejiang, China
3Department of Urology, First Affiliated Hospital, School of Medicine, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, 310003, China
*These authors contributed equally to this work
Bo Xie, email: email@example.com
Xin Xu, email: firstname.lastname@example.org
Keywords: body mass index, prostate cancer, meta-analysis, dose-response, cohort
Received: May 30, 2017 Accepted: August 26, 2017 Published: September 15, 2017
The relationship between body mass index (BMI) and incidence of prostate cancer is still inconclusive. We performed a dose-response meta-analysis of eligible cohort studies to evaluate potential association of BMI with prostate cancer risk by subtype of prostate cancer (nonaggressive and aggressive). A comprehensive literature search was performed in PubMed and Web of Science databases through March 22, 2017. Linear and non-linear dose-response meta-analyses were carried out to evaluate the effects of BMI on incidence of prostate cancer. A total of 21 cohort or nested case-control studies (17 for nonaggressive and 21 for aggressive prostate cancer) were included in this meta-analysis. For nonaggressive prostate cancer, the pooled relative risk (RR) per 5 kg/m2 increment of BMI with 95% confidence interval (CI) was 0.96 (95% CI 0.92–1.00). Sensitivity analysis indicated that this result was not robust and steady. For aggressive prostate cancer, a significant linear direct relationship with BMI (RR, 1.07; 95% CI 1.03–1.12) for every 5 kg/m2 increase was observed. Statistically significant heterogeneity was detected for nonaggressive prostate cancer (P = 0.020, I2 = 46.1%) but not for aggressive prostate cancer (P = 0.174, I2 = 22.4%). In conclusion, BMI level may be positively associated with aggressive prostate cancer risk. Further large prospective cohort studies are warranted to confirm the findings from our study.
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