Polysaccharides from Chrysanthemum morifolium Ramat ameliorate colitis rats by modulating the intestinal microbiota community
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Jin-Hua Tao1, Jin-Ao Duan2, Shu Jiang2, Nan-Nan Feng1, Wen-Qian Qiu1 and Yong Ling1
1School of Pharmacy, Nantong University, Nantong 226001, PR China
2Jiangsu Collaborative Innovation Center of Chinese Medicinal Resources Industrialization, Nanjing University of Chinese Medicine, Nanjing 210023, PR China
Jin-Hua Tao, email: email@example.com
Jin-Ao Duan, email: firstname.lastname@example.org
Keywords: chrysanthemum polysaccharides, ulcerative colitis, 16S rRNA, microbial diversity, short chain fatty acids
Received: April 13, 2017 Accepted: July 26, 2017 Published: August 24, 2017
The gut microflora dysbiosis has been closely related with the inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). In this study, the effect of polysaccharides from Chrysanthemum morifolium Ramat on the gut microbiota was evaluated by ulcerative colitis (UC) rat model. Physiological and pathological analyses suggested that Chrysanthemum polysaccharides possessed notably protective effects on UC in vivo. Based on the Illumina MiSeq platform, 16S rRNA sequencing of the rat colonic contents indicated that the intestinal flora structure remarkably changed in the model rats and the tendency was alleviated to a certain degree by treatment with different dosages of Chrysanthemum polysaccharides. In normal groups, there were more Firmicutes than Bacteroidetes, but this change lost at the pathological state. Following Chrysanthemum polysaccharides, rising Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes ratio was validated. Besides the microbial diversity and the community richness of the UC rats were improved by Chrysanthemum polysaccharides, the composition of intestinal microflora in the model group were also restored after oral administration of Chrysanthemum polysaccharides. The abundance of opportunistic pathogens was decreased (Escherichia, Enterococcus and Prevotella), while the levels of protective bacteria such as Butyricicoccus and Clostridium (butyrate-producing bacteria), Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium (probiotics), Lachnospiraceae and Rikenellaceae elevated in various degrees. Correlation analysis between intestinal flora and biochemical factors suggested that the relative abundance of protective bacteria was positively correlated with the levels of anti-inflammatory cytokines such as IL-4, IL-10 and IL-11, while aggressive bacteria were positively correlated with proinflammatory cytokine such as IL-23、IL-6、 IF-17、TNF-α、IL-1β and IFN-γ. The above results showed that the intestinal flora were closely related to the secretion and expression of cytokines in the body, and they interacted with each other to regulate immune function. Thus, Chrysanthemum polysaccharides could ameliorate ulcerative colitis by fostering beneficial intestinal flora growth, modulating the balance of intestinal microecology and restoring the immune system.
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