Research Papers: Immunology:
Epigenetic hypomethylation and upregulation of matrix metalloproteinase 9 in Kawasaki disease
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Ho-Chang Kuo1,2, Sung-Chou Li3, Lien-Hung Huang3 and Ying-Hsien Huang1,2,4
1 Department of Pediatrics, Kaohsiung Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Chang Gung University College of Medicine, Kaohsiung, Taiwan
2 Kawasaki Disease Center, Kaohsiung Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Kaohsiung, Taiwan
3 Department of Medical Research, Genomics and Proteomics Core Laboratory, Kaohsiung Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Chang Gung University College of Medicine, Kaohsiung, Taiwan
4 Department of Pediatrics, Chiayi Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Kaohsiung, Taiwan
Ying-Hsien Huang, email:
Keywords: matrix metalloproteinase, genetic methylation, Kawasaki disease, Immunology and Microbiology Section, Immune response, Immunity
Received: April 05, 2017 Accepted: June 28, 2017 Published: July 28, 2017
Background: Kawasaki disease (KD) is a type of febrile coronary vasculitis occurring in children. Some researchers have suggested that changes in genetic signatures, such as matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), are critical markers for cardiovascular diseases. This study aims to provide a comprehensive survey of global DNA methylation levels and MMP transcripts of KD patients compared to control subjects.
Materials and Methods: For chips studies, we recruited a total of 18 KD patients, prior to receiving intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) and at least 3 weeks after IVIG treatment, as well as 18 healthy and 18 febrile control subjects. We applied Illumina HumanMethylation450 BeadChip and Affymetrix GeneChip® Human Transcriptome Array 2.0 to evaluate their CpG markers and expression levels, respectively. Then we used a separate cohort to carry out real-time quantitative PCR validations of mRNA levels.
Results: The expressions of mRNA levels of MMP-8, -9, and -25 were significantly upregulated in KD patients compared to the healthy and febrile controls. Once KD patients underwent IVIG treatment, these MMPs considerably decreased. In particular, the methylation status of CpG sites of MMP-9 indicated a significant opposite tendency between both stages of not only the KD samples but also the controls. We also observed the mRNA level of MMP-9 to be higher in KD patients with coronary arterial lesion formation.
Conclusion: This study is the first to report epigenetic hypomethylation, an increased MMP-9 transcript, and the upregulation of MMP-9 in KD patients who had formed coronary arterial lesions.
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