A patient-derived orthotopic xenograft (PDOX) mouse model of a cisplatinum-resistant osteosarcoma lung metastasis that was sensitive to temozolomide and trabectedin: implications for precision oncology
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Kentaro Igarashi1,2,3, Takashi Murakami1,2, Kei Kawaguchi1,2, Tasuku Kiyuna1,2, Kentaro Miyake1,2, Yong Zhang1, Scott D. Nelson5, Sarah M. Dry5, Yunfeng Li5, Jane Yanagawa6, Tara A. Russell6, Arun S. Singh4, Hiroyuki Tsuchiya3, Irmina Elliott6, Fritz C. Eilber6 and Robert M. Hoffman1,2
1AntiCancer, Inc., San Diego, California, USA
2Department of Surgery, University of California, San Diego, California, USA
3Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Kanazawa University, Kanazawa, Japan
4Division of Hematology-Oncology, University of California, Los Angeles, California, USA
5Department of Pathology, University of California, Los Angeles, California, USA
6Division of Surgical Oncology, University of California, Los Angeles, California, USA
Robert M. Hoffman, email: firstname.lastname@example.org
Fritz C. Eilber, email: email@example.com
Keywords: osteosarcoma, recurrence, lung metastasis, PDOX, chemotherapy
Received: March 28, 2017 Accepted: May 24, 2017 Published: July 08, 2017
In the present study, we evaluated the efficacy of trabectedin (TRAB) and temozolomide (TEM) compared to cisplatinum (CDDP) on a patient-derived orthotopic xenogrraft (PDOX) of a lung-metastasis from an osteosarcoma of a patient who failed CDDP therapy. Osteosarcoma resected from the patient was implanted orthotopically in the distal femur of mice to establish PDOX models which were randomized into the following groups when tumor volume reached approximately 100 mm3: G1, control without treatment; G2, CDDP (6 mg/kg, intraperitoneal injection, weekly, for 2 weeks); G3, TRAB (0.15 mg/kg, intravenous injection, weekly, for 2 weeks); G4, TEM (25 mg/kg, oral, daily, for 14 days). Tumor size and body weight were measured with calipers and a digital balance, respectively, twice a week. On day 14 after initiation of treatment, TEM and TRAB, but not CDDP, significantly inhibited tumor volume compared to untreated control: control (G1): 814.5±258.8 mm3; CDDP (G2): 608.6±126.9 mm3; TRAB (G3): 286.6±133.0 mm3; TEM (G4): 182.9±69.1 mm3. CDDP vs. control, p=0.07; TRAB vs. control, p=0.0004; TEM vs. control p =0.0002; TRAB vs. CDDP, p =0.0002; TEM vs. CDDP, p =0.00003. The results of the present study show that a PDOX model of an osteosarcoma lung-metastasis that recurred after adjuvant CDDP-treatment has identified potentially, highly-effective drugs for this recalcitrant disease, while accurately maintaining the CDDP resistance of the tumor in the patient, thereby demonstrating the potential of the osteosarcoma PDOX model for precision oncology.
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