Meta-analysis of the correlation between vitamin D and lung cancer risk and outcomes
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Jian Liu1,*, Yongquan Dong1,*, Chao Lu2, Yina Wang1, Ling Peng1, Mengjie Jiang3, Yemin Tang1 and Qiong Zhao1
1Department of Thoracic Oncology, The First Affiliated Hospital, College of Medicine, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, Zhejiang Province, 310003, China
2Department of Gastroenterology, The First Affiliated Hospital, College of Medicine, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, Zhejiang Province, 310003, China
3Department of Radiotherapy, The First Affiliated Hospital, College of Medicine, Zhejiang Traditional Chinese Medical University, Hangzhou, Zhejiang Province, 310006, China
*These authors contributed equally to this work
Qiong Zhao, email: email@example.com
Keywords: vitamin D, lung cancer, risk, survival
Received: March 27, 2017 Accepted: June 11, 2017 Published: June 28, 2017
In this meta-analysis, we analyzed the association between vitamin D levels and lung carcinoma risk and outcomes. Two authors independently searched the Web of Science, Pubmed, EBSCO and Ovid MEDLINE resources with the key words “vitamin D, lung cancer, solar and latitude” and enrolled 22 studies that satisfied the inclusion criteria. The summary odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated using the random (or fixed)-effects model. Potential confounders were carefully adjusted. High vitamin D (or calcium) intake and serum 25(OH)D levels each correlated inversely with lung cancer risk [OR = 0.72 (95% CI: 0.61–0.85, p < 0.001) and OR = 0.89 (95% CI: 0.83–0.97, p < 0.05) ]. High circulating 25(OH)D levels also reduced lung cancer mortality with the pooled OR reached 0.39 (95% CI: 0.28–0.54, p < 0.001)]. A positive trend was presented in the relationship between serum 25(OH) D and survival (OR = 1.01, 95% CI: 0.87–1.18, p = 0.87). Subgroup analysis revealed that nonsmokers had higher vitamin D levels, which correlated negatively with lung cancer risk (OR = 0.76, 95% CI: 0.65–0.88, p < 0.01). Moreover, lower sun exposure and high latitude associated with lower vitamin D levels. This meta-analysis shows that high vitamin D (or calcium) intake and serum 25(OH)D levels correlate with lower lung cancer risk and better prognosis. UVB and latitude may play a vital role in lung cancer occurrence and progression, although a direct evidence hasn’t been obtained.
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