Andrographolide inhibits arrhythmias and is cardioprotective in rabbits
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Mengliu Zeng1,*, Wanzhen Jiang1,*, Youjia Tian1, Jie Hao1, Zhenzhen Cao1, Zhipei Liu1, Chen Fu1, Peihua Zhang1 and Jihua Ma1
1Cardio-Electrophysiological Research Laboratory, Medical College of Wuhan University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei, China
*These authors have contributed equally to this work
Jihua Ma, email: firstname.lastname@example.org
Keywords: andrographolide, sodium current, L-type calcium current, action potential, arrhythmia
Received: January 17, 2017 Accepted: April 21, 2017 Published: May 22, 2017
Andrographolide has a protective effect on the cardiovascular system. To study its cardic-electrophysiological effects, action potentials and voltage-gated Na+ (INa), Ca2+ (ICaL), and K+ (IK1, IKr, Ito and IKur) currents were recorded using whole-cell patch clamp and current clamp techniques. Additionally, the effects of andrographolide on aconitine-induced arrhythmias were assessed on electrocardiograms in vivo. We found that andrographolide shortened action potential duration and reduced maximum upstroke velocity in rabbit left ventricular and left atrial myocytes. Andrographolide attenuated rate-dependence of action potential duration, and reduced or abolished delayed afterdepolarizations and triggered activities induced by isoproterenol (1 μM) and high calcium ([Ca2+]o=3.6 mM) in left ventricular myocytes. Andrographolide also concentration-dependently inhibited INa and ICaL, but had no effect on Ito, IKur, IK1, or IKr in rabbit left ventricular and left atrial myocytes. Andrographolide treatment increased the time and dosage thresholds of aconitine-induced arrhythmias, and reduced arrhythmia incidence and mortality in rabbits. Our results indicate that andrographolide inhibits cellular arrhythmias (delayed afterdepolarizations and triggered activities) and aconitine-induced arrhythmias in vivo, and these effects result from INa and ICaL inhibition. Andrographolide may be useful as a class I and IV antiarrhythmic therapeutic.
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