Microtubule inhibitor, SP-6-27 inhibits angiogenesis and induces apoptosis in ovarian cancer cells
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Arpita Kulshrestha1,*, Gajendra K. Katara1,*, Safaa A. Ibrahim1,3, Renukadevi Patil2, Shivaputra A. Patil2 and Kenneth D. Beaman1
1Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Chicago Medical School, Rosalind Franklin University of Medicine and Science, North Chicago, USA
2Pharmaceutical Sciences Department, College of Pharmacy, Rosalind Franklin University of Medicine and Science, North Chicago, USA
3Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Cairo University, Giza, Egypt
*These authors have contributed equally to this work
Kenneth D. Beaman, email: email@example.com
Shivaputra A. Patil, email: firstname.lastname@example.org
Keywords: chromene, microtubule inhibitor, ovarian cancer, cisplatin resistance
Received: December 28, 2016 Accepted: March 21, 2017 Published: May 02, 2017
In ovarian cancer (OVCA), treatment failure due to chemo-resistance is a serious challenge. It is therefore critical to identify new therapies that are effective against resistant tumors and have reduced side effects. We recently identified 4-H-chromenes as tubulin depolymerizing agents that bind to colchicine site of beta-tubulin. Here, we screened a chemical library of substituted 4-H-chromenes and identified SP-6-27 to exhibit most potent anti-proliferative activity towards a panel of human cisplatin sensitive and resistant OVCA cell lines with 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50; mean ± SD) ranging from 0.10 ± 0.01 to 0.84 ± 0.20 μM. SP-6-27 exhibited minimum cytotoxicity to normal ovarian epithelia. A pronounced decrease in microtubule density as well as G2/M cell cycle arrest was observed in SP-6-27 treated cisplatin sensitive/resistant OVCA cells. The molecular mechanism of SP-6-27 induced cell death revealed modulation in cell-cycle regulation by upregulation of growth arrest and DNA damage inducible alpha transcripts (GADD45). An enhanced intrinsic apoptosis was observed in OVCA cells through upregulation of Bax, Apaf-1, caspase-6, -9, and caspase-3.In vitro wound healing assay revealed reduced OVCA cell migration upon SP-6-27 treatment. Additionally, SP-6-27 and cisplatin combinatorial treatment showed enhanced cytotoxicity in chemo-sensitive/resistant OVCA cells. Besides effect on cancer cells, SP-6-27 further restrained angiogenesis by inhibiting capillary tube formation by human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC). Together, these findings show that the chromene analog SP-6-27 is a novel chemotherapeutic agent that offers important advantages for the treatment of ovarian cancer.
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