Decreased calpain activity in chronic myeloid leukemia impairs apoptosis by increasing survivin in myeloid progenitors and xiap1 in differentiating granulocytes
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Weiqi Huang1,2, Ling Bei1,2, Elizabeth E. Hjort1,2 and Elizabeth A. Eklund1,2
1The Feinberg School at Northwestern University, Chicago, IL, USA
2Jesse Brown VA Medical Center, Chicago, IL, USA
Elizabeth A. Eklund, email: firstname.lastname@example.org
Keywords: leukemia, Calpain, apoptosis, myeloid, survivin
Received: November 10, 2016 Accepted: March 27, 2017 Published: April 06, 2017
Chronic Myeloid Leukemia (CML) is characterized by translocations between chromosomes 9 and 22, resulting in expression of Bcr-abl oncogenes. Although the clinical course of CML was revolutionized by development of Bcr-abl-directed tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs), CML is not cured by these agents. Specifically, the majority of subjects relapsed in clinical trials attempting TKI discontinuation, suggesting persistence of leukemia stem cells (LSCs) even in molecular remission. Identifying mechanisms of CML-LSC persistence may suggest rationale therapeutic targets to augment TKI efficacy and lead to cure. Apoptosis resistance is one proposed mechanism. In prior studies, we identified increased expression of Growth Arrest Specific 2 (Gas2; a Calpain inhibitor) in Bcr-abl+ bone marrow progenitor cells. A number of previously described Calpain substrates might influence apoptosis in CML, including βcatenin and the X-linked Inhibitor of Apoptosis Protein 1 (Xiap1). We previously found Gas2/Calpain dependent stabilization of βcatenin in CML, and increased expression of βcatenin target genes, including Survivin (also an IAP). In the current work, we investigate contributions of Survivin and Xiap1 to Fas-resistance in Bcr-abl+ bone marrow cells. Inhibitors of these proteins are currently in clinical trials for other malignancies, but a role for either IAP in CML-LSC persistence is unknown.
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