Relevance of CCL3/CCR5 axis in oral carcinogenesis
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Janine Mayra da Silva1,2, Tálita Pollyanna Moreira dos Santos3, Lays Martin Sobral3, Celso Martins Queiroz-Junior2, Milene Alvarenga Rachid4, Amanda E.I. Proudfoot5, Gustavo Pompermaier Garlet6, Aline Carvalho Batista7, Mauro Martins Teixeira8, Andréia Machado Leopoldino3, Remo Castro Russo9 and Tarcília Aparecida Silva1
1Department of Oral Surgery and Pathology, School of Dentistry, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil
2Department of Morphology, Institute of Biological Sciences, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil
3Department of Clinical Analysis, Toxicology and Food Sciences, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences of Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, Bauru, Brazil
4Department of General Pathology, Institute of Biological Sciences, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil
5Merck Serono Geneva Research Centre, Geneva, Switzerland
6Department of Biological Sciences, School of Dentistry, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, Bauru, Brazil
7Department of Stomatology, School of Dentistry, Universidade Federal de Goiás, Goiânia, Goiás, Brazil
8Laboratory of Immunopharmacology, Department of Biochemistry and Immunology, Institute of Biological Sciences, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil
9Laboratory of Pulmonary Immunology and Mechanics, Department of Physiology and Biophysics, Institute of Biological Sciences, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil
Tarcília Aparecida Silva, email: firstname.lastname@example.org
Keywords: chemokines, CCL3, CCR1, CCR5, OSCC
Received: August 15, 2016 Accepted: February 20, 2017 Published: April 06, 2017
The chemokine CCL3 is a chemotactic cytokine crucial for inflammatory cell recruitment in homeostatic and pathological conditions. CCL3 might stimulate cancer progression by promoting leukocyte accumulation, angiogenesis and tumour growth. The expression of CCL3 and its receptors CCR1 and CCR5 was demonstrated in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC), but their role was not defined. Here, the functions of CCL3 were assessed using a model of chemically induced tongue carcinogenesis with 4-nitroquinoline-1-oxide (4NQO). Lineages of OSCC were used to analyse the effects of CCL3 in vitro. The 4NQO-induced lesions exhibited increased expression of CCL3, CCR1 and CCR5. CCL3-/- and CCR5-/- mice presented reduced incidence of tongue tumours compared to wild-type (WT) and CCR1-/- mice. Consistently, attenuated cytomorphological atypia and reduced cell proliferation were observed in lesions of CCL3-/- and CCR5-/- mice. OSCC from CCL3-/- mice exhibited lower infiltration of eosinophils and reduced expression of Egf, Fgf1, Tgf-β1, Vegfa, Vegfb, Itga-4, Vtn, Mmp-1a, Mmp-2 and Mmp-9 than WT mice. In vitro, CCL3 induced invasion and production of CCL5, IL-6, MMP -2, -8, -9. Blockage of CCL3 in vitro using α-CCL3 or Evasin-1 (a CCL3-binding protein) impaired tumour cell invasion. In conclusion, CCL3/CCR5 axis has pro-tumourigenic effects in oral carcinogenesis. The induction of inflammatory and angiogenic pathways and eosinophils recruitment appear to be the underlying mechanism explaining these effects. These data reveal potential protective effects of CCL3 blockade in oral cancer.
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