Low vitamin D status is associated with inflammation in patients with prostate cancer
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Dong-Dong Xie1,*, Yuan-Hua Chen3,*, Shen Xu1,*, Cheng Zhang2, Da-Ming Wang1, Hua Wang2, Lei Chen1, Zhi-Hui Zhang2, Mi-Zhen Xia4, De-Xiang Xu2, De-Xin Yu1
1Department of Urology, Second Affiliated Hospital, Anhui Medical University, Hefei 230022, China
2Department of Toxicology, Anhui Medical University, Hefei 230032, China
3Department of Histology and Embryology, Anhui Medical University, Hefei 230032, China
4Life Science College, Anhui Medical University, Hefei 230032, China
*These authors have contributed equally to this work
De-Xin Yu, email: email@example.com
De-Xiang Xu, email: firstname.lastname@example.org
Keywords: prostate cancer, vitamin D deficiency, inflammation, vitamin D receptor, nuclear factor kappa B p65
Received: November 10, 2016 Accepted: January 22, 2017 Published: March 15, 2017
Vitamin D deficiency has been associated with increased risks of prostate cancer. Nevertheless, the mechanisms remain unclear. The aim of this study was to analyze the association among prostate cancer, vitamin D status and inflammation. Sixty patients with newly diagnosed prostate cancer and 120 age-matched controls were recruited for this study. Vitamin D status was evaluated and serum inflammatory molecules were measured. Serum 25-(OH)D was lower in patients with prostate cancer. Moreover, serum 25(OH)D was lower in patients with severe prostate cancer than patients with mild and moderate prostate cancer. By contrast, serum C-reactive protein (CRP) and interleukin (IL)-8, two inflammatory molecules, were elevated in patients with prostate cancer. Serum 25-(OH)D was negatively correlated with serum CRP and IL-8 in patients with prostate cancer. Additional analysis showed that the percentage of vitamin D receptor positive nucleus in the prostate was reduced in patients with prostate cancer. By contrast, the percentage of nuclear factor kappa B p65-positive nucleus was elevated in patients with prostate cancer. Our results provide evidence that there is an association among prostate cancer, vitamin D deficiency and inflammatory signaling. Inflammation may be an important mediator for prostate cancer progression in patients with low vitamin D status.
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