MicroRNAs in biofluids are novel tools for bladder cancer screening
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Xiaobing Liu1, Xin Liu1, Yuqi Wu1, Qingjian Wu1, Qingqing Wang1, Zhenxing Yang1 and Longkun Li1
1 Department of Urology, Second Affiliated Hospital, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing, China
Longkun Li, email:
Keywords: bladder cancer, microRNAs, biomarker, urine, blood
Received: January 12, 2017 Accepted: February 17, 2017 Published: March 08, 2017
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are short non-coding RNAs that play important roles in basic cellular processes, including differentiation, proliferation, apoptosis and autophagy. They are also involved in various stages of tumorigenesis and play key roles in bladder cancer initiation and progression. Notably, the altered expression of miRNAs in the tumors is reflected in body fluids, including blood and urine, which opens avenues for non-invasive diagnosis and prognosis. Many studies have demonstrated that epigenetic changes extensively alter tumoral microRNA expression. The high reproducibility, specificity and sensitivity of miRNA levels in body fluids suggest their potential use as biomarkers for cancer screening and diagnosis. For example, recent technological advances have made it possible to detect miRNAs in urine for bladder cancer screening. In this review, we focus mainly on the current knowledge and future challenges for incorporating miRNAs in body fluids, like urine and blood, for making clinical diagnoses and assessing prognoses in bladder cancer.
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