Tat is a multifunctional viral protein that modulates cellular gene expression and functions
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Evan Clark1,*, Brenda Nava1,* and Massimo Caputi1
1 Charles E. Schmidt College of Medicine, Florida Atlantic University, Boca Raton, FL, USA
* Evan Clark and Brenda Nava have contributed equally to this work
Massimo Caputi, email:
Keywords: HIV-1, Tat, transcription, gene regulation
Received: October 24, 2016 Accepted: January 24, 2017 Published: February 07, 2017
The human immunodeficiency virus type I (HIV-1) has developed several strategies to condition the host environment to promote viral replication and spread. Viral proteins have evolved to perform multiple functions, aiding in the replication of the viral genome and modulating the cellular response to the infection. Tat is a small, versatile, viral protein that controls transcription of the HIV genome, regulates cellular gene expression and generates a permissive environment for viral replication by altering the immune response and facilitating viral spread to multiple tissues. Studies carried out utilizing biochemical, cellular, and genomic approaches show that the expression and activity of hundreds of genes and multiple molecular networks are modulated by Tat via multiple mechanisms.
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