Dietary energy restriction reduces high-fat diet-enhanced metastasis of Lewis lung carcinoma in mice
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Sneha Sundaram1, Lin Yan1
1U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, Grand Forks Human Nutrition Research Center, Grand Forks, ND 58202, USA
Lin Yan, email: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Keywords: energy restriction, high-fat diet, Lewis lung carcinoma, metastasis, mice
Received: May 12, 2016 Accepted: August 11, 2016 Published: August 25, 2016
The objective of this study was to determine whether a reduction in energy intake ameliorated the high-fat diet-enhanced spontaneous metastasis of Lewis lung carcinoma in mice. Male C57BL/6 mice were fed the AIN93G diet, a high-fat diet or a high-fat diet with a 5% restriction of the intake. Energy restriction reduced body adiposity and body weight, but maintained growth similar to mice fed the AIN93G diet. The high-fat diet significantly increased the number and size (cross-sectional area and volume) of metastases formed in lungs. Restricted feeding reduced the number of metastases by 23%, metastatic cross-sectional area by 32% and volume by 45% compared to the high-fat diet. The high-fat diet elevated plasma concentrations of proinflammatory cytokines (monocyte chemotactic protein-1, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1, leptin), angiogenic factors (vascular endothelial growth factor, tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1) and insulin. Restricted feeding significantly reduced the high-fat diet-induced elevations in plasma concentrations of proinflammatory cytokines, angiogenic factors and insulin. These results demonstrated that a reduction in diet intake by 5% reduced high-fat diet-enhanced metastasis, which may be associated with the mitigation of adiposity and down-regulation of cancer-promoting proinflammatory cytokines and angiogenic factors.
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