Serum protein fingerprinting by PEA immunoassay coupled with a pattern-recognition algorithms distinguishes MGUS and multiple myeloma
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Petra Schneiderova1,*, Tomas Pika2,*, Petr Gajdos3, Regina Fillerova1, Pavel Kromer3, Milos Kudelka3, Jiri Minarik2, Tomas Papajik2, Vlastimil Scudla2 and Eva Kriegova1
1Department of Immunology, Faculty of Medicine and Dentistry, Palacky University Olomouc, Olomouc, Czech Republic
2Department of Hemato-Oncology, Faculty of Medicine and Dentistry, Palacky University and University Hospital, Olomouc, Czech Republic
3Department of Computer Science, Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, VSB-Technical University of Ostrava, Ostrava, Czech Republic
*These authors have contributed equally to this work
Eva Kriegova, email: firstname.lastname@example.org
Keywords: serum pattern, cytokines, growth factors, proximity extension immunoassay, post-transplant serum pattern
Received: May 04, 2016 Accepted: July 28, 2016 Published: August 12, 2016
Serum protein fingerprints associated with MGUS and MM and their changes in MM after autologous stem cell transplantation (MM-ASCT, day 100) remain unexplored. Using highly-sensitive Proximity Extension ImmunoAssay on 92 cancer biomarkers (Proseek Multiplex, Olink), enhanced serum levels of Adrenomedullin (ADM, Pcorr= .0004), Growth differentiation factor 15 (GDF15, Pcorr= .003), and soluble Major histocompatibility complex class I-related chain A (sMICA, Pcorr= .023), all prosurvival and chemoprotective factors for myeloma cells, were detected in MM comparing to MGUS. Comparison of MGUS and healthy subjects revealed elevation of angiogenic and antia-poptotic midkine (Pcorr= .0007) and downregulation of Transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGFB1, Pcorr= .005) in MGUS. Importantly, altered serum pattern was associated with MM-ASCT compared to paired MM at the diagnosis as well as to healthy controls, namely by upregulated B-Cell Activating Factor (sBAFF) (Pcorr< .006) and sustained elevation of other pro-tumorigenic factors. In conclusion, the serum fingerprints of MM and MM-ASCT were characteristic by elevated levels of prosurvival and chemoprotective factors for myeloma cells.
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