Improved survival of patients with hepatocellular carcinoma and disparities by age, race, and socioeconomic status by decade, 1983–2012
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Shuncong Wang1,*, Huanhuan Sun1,*, Zhinan Xie2,*, Jie Li3, Guobin Hong4, Dan Li5,6,7, Saradhi Mallampati8, Xiuling Zhou1, Cuiling Zhou1, Hongyu Zhang1, Zhibin Cheng1, Hong Shan5,6,7, Haiqing Ma1
1Department of Oncology, The Fifth Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-Sen University, Zhuhai, Guangdong 519000, China
2Department of Equipment Management, The Fifth Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-Sen University, Zhuhai, Guangdong 519000, China
3Department of Breast and Thyroid Surgery, The First Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou, Guangdong 510080, China
4Department of Radiology, The Fifth Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-Sen University, Zhuhai, Guangdong 519000, China
5Center for Interventional Medicine, The Fifth Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University, Zhuhai, 519000, China
6Guangdong Provincial Engineering Research Center for Molecular Imaging, Zhuhai, 519000, China
7Institute of Interventional Radiology, Sun Yat-sen University, Zhuhai, 519000, China
8Department of Laboratory Medicine and the Center for Stem Cell and Developmental Biology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX 77030, USA
*These authors have contributed equally to this work
Haiqing Ma, email: email@example.com
Hong Shan, email: firstname.lastname@example.org
Keywords: hepatocellular carcinoma, incidence, relative survival, SEER, socioeconomic status
Received: May 10, 2016 Accepted: July 14, 2016 Published: July 29, 2016
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), accounting for the majority of liver cancer, is a highly aggressive malignancy with poor prognosis and therefore adds up the financial burden. Incidence data of HCC in three decades during 1983-2012 were extracted from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) database with incidence rates of 1.9, 3.1 and 4.9 per 100,000 respectively. In addition, to evaluate the survival changes in the same period, a total of 63,640 HCC cancer cases were accessed from SEER database. The six-month relative survival rates improved each decade from 31.0% to 42.9% to 57.2% and the higher increase can be seen in the last two decades. More importantly, the disparities of survival among different racial groups and socioeconomic status (SES) were confirmed by the inferiority of survival in Black race and high-poverty group respectively. This research analyzed the incidence and survival data of HCC in the past three decades and may help predict the future trends of incidence and survival. Furthermore, this study may help better design healthcare policies and clinical management programs to balance the disparities of survival between SES groups, races, ages and sexes confirmed in this study and thereby improve the clinical management of HCC.
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