Research Papers: Gerotarget (Focus on Aging):
Reduced bone resorption by intake of dietary vitamin D and K from tailor-made Atlantic salmon: a randomized intervention trial
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Ingvild Eide Graff1, Jannike Øyen1, Marian Kjellevold1, Livar Frøyland1, Clara Gram Gjesdal2,3, Bjørg Almås4, Grethe Rosenlund5 and Øyvind Lie1
1 National Institute of Nutrition and Seafood Research (NIFES), Bergen, Norway
2 Department of Rheumatology, Haukeland University Hospital, Bergen, Norway
3 Department of Clinical Science, University of Bergen, Bergen, Norway
4 Hormone Laboratory, Haukeland University Hospital, Bergen, Norway
5 Skretting Aquaculture Research Centre, Stavanger, Norway
Jannike Øyen, email:
Keywords: Atlantic salmon, bone health, vitamin D, vitamin K, bone biomarkers, Gerotarget
Received: March 09, 2016 Accepted: June 09, 2016 Published: August 14, 2016
Suboptimal vitamin D status is common among humans, and might increase bone resorption with subsequent negative effects on bone health. Fatty fish, including Atlantic salmon, is an important dietary vitamin D source. However, due to a considerable change in fish feed composition, the contribution of vitamin D from salmon fillet has been reduced. The main objective was to investigate if intake of vitamin D3 enriched salmon or vitamin D3 tablets decreased bone biomarkers (urinary N-telopeptides, deoxypyridinoline, serum bone-specific alkaline phosphatase, and osteocalcin) compared to a low vitamin D3 intake. The 122 healthy postmenopausal women included in this 12 weeks intervention trial were randomized into four groups: three salmon groups (150 grams/two times/week) and one tablet group (800 IU vitamin D and 1000 mg calcium/day). The salmon groups also received calcium supplements. The salmon had three different vitamin D3/vitamin K1 combinations: high D3+high K1, low D3+high K1, or high D3+low K1. Increased intake of salmon containing high levels of vitamin D3 (0.35-0.38 mg/kg/fillet) and supplements with the same weekly contribution had a positive influence on bone health as measured by bone biomarkers in postmenopausal women. Consequently, an increased level of vitamin D3 at least to original level in feed for salmonids will contribute to an improved vitamin D3 status and may improve human bone health.
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